sábado, 17 de noviembre de 2012

Work Packages, Deliverables and Milestones - IX

Table 1.2 d:    Work package description
Work package number
Start date or starting event:
Month 1
Work package title
Copenhagen Land-Use Architecture and National Policy Implications
Activity Type
Participant number

Participant short name

Person-months per participant

Description of work
 Land use policies will play a central part in the response of developing countries to climate change under a post-2012 agreement. Institutional and governance frameworks for territorial organization – in both rural and urban areas – will greatly influence the ways in which mitigation and adaptation can take place and the effectiveness of policy interventions. This component of the project will focus on the strategies that are already used in the countries studied, and the ways in which these can be modified for more effective mitigation and adaptation. It will examine existing policy and programme mechanisms, and identify the opportunities for mainstreaming adaptation and mitigation within these. In so doing, it will provide policy options that can draw these strands more closely together.
In rural areas, key areas for the intersection between land use, adaptation, and mitigation are related to specific development policies for land, agriculture including livestock, forestry, water resource management, wildlife, conservation as well broader cross-sector or over-arching policies such as PRSPs and economic investment. These are particularly important in a context of land reform. Issues to consider for rural areas:
-          Reconciling competing land uses: need to ensure security of tenure for small-holders in the face of increasing investment by the private sector in land/NRM-based activity for mitigation (biofuels, carbon storage) and broader economic development; for other groups such as pastoralists policy needs also to ensure security of access to key resources (water, pastures) thorugh negotiation and reciprocal access regimes;
-          Need to consider compatible multiple land use systems to accommodate increasing pressure on land that is likel;y to be exacerbated by increasing variability of climate – e.g. protected forest reserves/conservation areas opened up to livestock grazing, eco-friendly community-based tourism in conservation areas, etc.) ;
-          Devolving authority for land administration/land use planning to most appropriate levels depending on ecosystems/specific land uses – e.g. in dryland environments need to adopt broader ecosystem approach to land use planning which often cuts across administrative (and even national) boundaries to enable sustainable sustainable livelihoods;
-          Clearer understanding of the relative returns to land under different land use systems in the context of different climate change scenarios ;
-          Land policy needs to “mainstream” conflict mediation; increasing competition for high-value land is increasing due to rising population and is likely to rise further under climate change - ie areas with more stable environments will come under greater pressure under increasing climate variability thus need to plan for mechanisms to mediate competition;     
In towns and cities, planning strategies that influence urban density and urban form are central to mitigation strategies. Urban densities vary greatly across space : in 2000, built-up areas in the industrialized countries had an average density of 2,835 persons per km2; compared to an average of 8,050 per km2 in the less-developed countries – but in South-East Asia the average density of these areas was 16,495 per km2. The relationship between urban form, density, economy and society can have a significant bearing on the quantities of greenhouse gases emitted.  The high concentrations of people and economic activities in urban areas can lead to ‘economies’ of scale, proximity and agglomeration that can have a positive impact on energy use and associated emissions . Land-use planning  and transportation planning have a strong influence on modal choice, and hence emissions associated with transportation. This is of particular importance in middle-income nations and emerging economies, and this work package will assess policy directions that can influence urban land use patterns to encourage mitigation.
Similarly, land use planning and the distribution of urban populations can have a strong impact on adaptation strategies. If populations are concentrated in vulnerable locations, without proper infrastructure or institutional frameworks, density can increase risk. In high-income nations, a range of institutions, infrastructure, services and regulations protect dense urban populations from a range of disasters and climate risks – but these are frequently lacking in the cities of the global South. However, if effective means can be found for supporting dense populations in safe locations with suitable infrastructural and institutional frameworks, a viable alternative to living on marginal and unsafe sites can be provided, particularly for the urban poor. Access to land and shelter is a key issue for adaptation: pro-poor urban governance can make land available for low-income groups that reduces their exposure to climatic threats. This is an issue throughout the developing countries, but particularly in low-income nations. This work package will therefore assess policy directions that can influence urban land use patterns to reduce risk and vulnerability.
The rural and urban components of this work package will be brought together through a focus on governance issues. In particular, there will be a close examination of the processes of decentralization and devolution, and how localising decision-making may affect choices over land use. This component of the research will focus on the implications of decentralized governance for land-use planning, and the ways in which trade-offs are made between local, national and global needs.

D4.1: Discussion paper on Land Use (month 8)
D4.2: Thematic report on Land Use (month 15)

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